Fertility policies consist of not only the legal definition of “procreation”, but also the “maternity” protection system, the complete set of selfconsistent social relations and policy systems formed around “fertility”. Gender, labor and intergenerational relations are the cornerstones of a fertility policy system. In this framework, we focus on women of childbearing age as the main actors of reproductive behaviors, to research how drastic social changes have altered women, the above-mentioned relations, and policy support and analyze the structural factors that restrict women’s reproductive intentions. The traditional male breadwinner model, which can no longer prevail and the relatively slow development of maternity protection policies and service systems leave women of childbearing age in a dilemma between working hours and birth timing. Therefore, maternity protection policies should focus on improved decommodification of maternity insurance and the construction of women and children’s social welfare systems including childcare social service systems



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